Titel

Appendix to
“Brokers and ‘Guild’ (huiguan 會館) Organizations
in China’s Maritime Trade with her Eastern Neighbours during the Ming and Qing Dynasties”* 

Angela Schottenhammer

The Ryūkyūs can be designated China’s most filial tribute country,1 forming part of an East Asian world order in which China claimed to be the political and cultural centre. Since early Ming times, the Ryūkyūs had been firmly integrated into China’s so-called tribute system.2 In 1372 (Hongwu 洪武 5), the first Chinese investiture mission (cefeng 冊封), that is a mission that legitimized the rule of kings of neighbouring countries by the Emperor of China, was sent to the Ryūkyūs. The Ryūkyūs, on the other hand, usually sent the following types of missions to China: When a king died, a “report about death” (baosang 報喪), then, years later, another mission was sent to formally “request investiture” (qingfeng 請封). Tribute missions offering tribute (jingong 進貢) were sent every two years. Tribute, as a rule, consisted primarily in local products (fangwu 方物). During Ming times the Ryūkyūs also sent products from Southeast Asia; and after the country’s subjugation by Satsuma 薩摩 in 1606 Japanese products, such as copper, were among Ryūkyū’s tribute items. When the request for investiture was granted, Ryūkyū sent an envoy to Fuzhou to “meet the investiture envoys” (jiefeng 接封, also jiegong [Jap. sekkō] 接貢). Finally, after investiture, the Ryūkyūan king sent a mission with special tribute to China to “express gratitude for the emperor’s grace” (xie’en 謝恩).3 After the Ryūkyūs had been informed about the ascension of a new emperor to the Chinese throne, the Ryūkyūan king subsequently sent a mission “to offer congratulations” (qinghe 慶賀).

The island country also continued to serve as China’s tribute country throughout the Qing dynasty until Meiji Japan in 1875 prohibited the Ryūkyūans tribute payments. In this respect, missions continued to be sent to China. Eight investiture embassies, for example, were sent by the Qing government.4 Even when in 1839 the Chinese court decided to reduce the frequency of tribute missions from Siam, Burma and the Ryūkyūs to once every four years – a decision that may attest to the fact that on the eve of the Opium War the Qing court had become more sensible towards its traditional tribute countries – the Ryūkyūan king opposed this decision and requested to send tribute as before.5

What springs to mind when we investigate the frequency of official Ryūkyū missions to China is the fact that while there were only few jiegong-missions during Ming times, their quantity rose significantly during the Kangxi era. This has a historical background. In 1686 (Kangxi 25), the Dutch asked the Ministry of Rites (libu 禮部) for a tax exemption for jiegong-ships, because the latter did not come for profit purposes. The Qing government approved this request. Three years later (Kangxi 28), according to this pattern, the King of Ryūkyū also requested the Qing emperor for the same preferential treatment like the Dutch. This was also granted. From then on the Ryūkyūs received favourable terms from the Qing court to send three ships duty free (two regular tribute ships and one jiegong-ship).6 Eventually, in 1689, they even managed to obtain permission to increase the number of persons allowed to accompany the tribute ships by fifty.7 As a consequence the number of persons on Ryūkyūan tribute ships increased from 150 to 200.

Reportedly, in 1393 the Ming Emperor Hongwu sent thirty-six Chinese families to the Ryūkyūs as officials to assist in the maintenance of bilateral diplomatic and exchange relations as well as the establishment of a stable bureaucratic government on the islands.8 The Ming shi speaks of “thirty-six households of ship-builders which were bestowed from among the people of Min, in order to ease the intercourse of tribute envoys” (ci Minzhong zhougong sanshiliu hu, yi bian gongshi wanglai 賜閩中舟工三十六户以便貢使往來).9 The Lidai bao’an mentions thirty-six surnames from Min who entered the country (Minren sanshiliu xing ruguo 閩人三十六姓入國).10 Descendants of these thirty-six families later frequently served as foreign interpreters (yi tongshi 夷通事) in bilateral relations. Subsequently, we would like to introduce the genealogy of the Cai family and those members who served as interpreter-clerks, envoys or in related functions during missions to China.11

The transcription of Ryūkyūan names follows primarily the information provided by Sakamaki Shunzō in 1964, namely in the style of their kara-na 唐名, that is their Chinese name. Only aristocratic names follow the original Ryūkyūan style. All transcription not included in his study and not found in any other dictionary have been added according to the actual Japanese transcription, being well aware of the fact that the names may have been pronounced slightly differently. Unfortunately, most of the names are not included in the Okinawa daihyakka jiten 沖縄大百科事典 published by the Okinawa Times in 1983. It should also be mentioned that for many names there probably existed more than one reading.

Genealogy of the descendants of Cai Chong 蔡崇
of the Cai (Sai) 蔡 family12

2nd Generation

Cai Rang 蔡譲 (1399–1463)13
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi 通事)
Remarks: On 13/3/1434 (Xuande 9), he is sent to Min and Beijing as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi 通事) of a Xie’en 謝恩 mission, accompanying the envoy, Shin14 Kō (Chen Kang) 陳康; on 9/4/1439 (Zhengtong 4) sent to China, accompanying Ryō Kyūho (Liang Qiubao) 梁求保

Cai Rang 蔡瀼 (1401–1433)15
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 23/3/1437 (Zhengtong 2) sent to Min as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi 長史), Ryō Kyūho (Liang Qiubao) 梁求保

3rd Generation

Cai Jing 蔡璟 (1426–1486)16
Title: Administrator (zhangshi 長史)
Remarks: On 9/8/1464 (Tianshun 8) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi 長史) of a Qinghe 慶賀 mission, accompanying the younger brother of the king, Shō Bu 尚武; on 15/8/1468 (Cheng hua 4) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission, together with the Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Rin Mo (Lin Mao) 林茂, et al.; 7/9/1470 (Chenghua 6) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a Xie’en mission, together with the Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Ryō Ō (Liang Ying) 梁應, et al.; on 3/9/1473 (Chenghua 9) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission, together with the Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Gi Ken (Wei Jian) 魏鋻, et al.

Cai Zhang 蔡璋 (1445–1504)17
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu 存留) in a Xie’en 謝恩-mission and acting as on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi 在船通事), Administrator (zhangshi)
Remarks: On 7/9/1470 (Chenghua 6) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and as on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a Xie’en mission, accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Sai Kei (Cai Jing) 蔡璟; on 28/9/1472 (Chenghua 8) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a Xie’en mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy (ōkyū 王舅), Bu Jitsu?18 武實, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu 正義大夫) Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏; on 15/9/1476 (Chenghua 12) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a Xie’en mission, accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Ri Ei (Li Rong) 李榮; on 6/8/1483 (Chenghua 19) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏

Cai Xuan 蔡璇 (? – 1520)19
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu 存留), on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi), and Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi 都通事)
Remarks: On 20/8/1485 (Chenghua 21) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏; on 25/9/1486 (Cheng hua 22) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a Xie’en mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Ba Shinrei 馬審禮, and the Administrator (zhangshi), Tei Kyū (Zheng Jiu) 鄭玖; on 12/9/1489 (Hongzhi 2) sent on a Qinghe mission; his position was raised to that of a Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) and he was sent to Min and Beijing, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Ma Botsuto 麻勃都, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Toku (Liang De) 梁德; on 20/8/1493 (Hongzhi 6) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Chief-Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan du tongshi) of a tribute and Qinghe mission), accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Toku (Liang De) 梁德; on 18/9/1508 (Zhengde 3) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of tribute mission

Cai Qi 蔡齊 (?)20
Title: Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 4/8/1463 (Tianshun 7) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a Xie’en mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Ō Satsuto 王察都, and the Administrator (zhangshi), Ryō Hin (Liang Bin) 梁賓; on 15/8/1469 (Chenghua 5) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏; on 28/9/1472 (Chenghua 8) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a Xie’en mission, accompanying the accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Bu Jitsu21 武實, and the Administrator (zhangshi), Ri Ei (Li Rong) 李榮; on 3/9/1474 (Chenghua 10) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏

Cai Xi 蔡曦 (?)22
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Administrator (zhangshi)
Remarks: On 9/8/1464 (Tianshun 8) sent to Min and Beijing as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a Qinghe mission, accompanying the younger brother of the king, Shō Bu 尚武; on 12/10/1466 (Chenghua 2) sent to Min as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission together with Rin Mo (Lin Mao) 林茂; on 15/9/1476 (Chenghua 12) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of th crown prince (taizi 太子) on a Qinghe mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏; on 26/9/1479 (Chenghua 15) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a Xie’en mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Ba Isei 馬怡世, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏; on 12/8/1481 (Chenghua 17) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission, together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zheng yi dafu), Ryō Ō (Liang Ying) 梁應; on 12/8/1485 (Chenghua 21) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission, together with with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏

4th Generation

Cai Bao 蔡寶 (?)23
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 23/8/1477 (Chenghua 13) sent to Min and Beijing as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a Qingfeng 請封 mission, accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Ryō Ō (Liang Ying) 梁應; on 11/8/1487 (Chenghua 23) sent to Min and Beijing as official student (guansheng 官生) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏; on 12/9/1489 (Hongzhi 2) sent to Min and Beijing as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying Administrator (zhangshi), Ryō Nō (Liang Neng) 梁能; on 21/8/1491 (Hongzhi 4) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Toku (Liang De) 梁德; on 16/8/1495 (Hongzhi 8) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Kyū (Zheng Jiu) 鄭玖; on 13/7/1497 (Hongzhi 10) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Ren (Cheng Lian) 程璉; on 9/8/1501 (Hongzhi 14) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Ren (Cheng Lian) 程璉

Cai Bin 蔡賓 (?)24
Title: Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Administrator (zhangshi)
Remarks: On 11/8/1487 (Chenghua 23) sent to Min and Beijing as official student (guansheng) on a Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏; on 12/9/1489 (Hongzhi 2) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Ryō Nō (Liang Neng) 梁能; on 20/8/1493 (Hongzhi 6) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Toku (Liang De) 梁德; on 16/8/1495 (Hongzhi 8) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Kyū (Zheng Jiu) 鄭玖; on 3/8/1499 (Hongzhi 12) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Kyū (Zheng Jiu) 鄭玖; on 12/7/1504 (Hongzhi 17) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Kyū (Zheng Jiu) 鄭玖; on 2/9/1506 (Zhengde 1) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute and Qinghe mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Akanishi 亞嘉尼施25

Cai Shi 蔡實 (?)26
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 6/8/1483 (Chenghua 19) sent to Min and Beijing as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏; on 12/8/1485 (Chenghua 21) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏; on 12/9/1489 (Hongzhi 2) sent to Min and Beijing as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission offering xiang 香 (incense, spices, perfumes); on 21/8/1491 (Hongzhi 4) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Toku (Liang De) 梁德; on 20/8/1493 (Hongzhi 6) sent to Min and Beijing Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a Qinghe mission

Cai Ming 蔡明 (?)27
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 16/8/1472 (Chenghua 8) sent to Min as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Kyū (Zheng Jiu) 鄭玖; on 11/8/1487 (Chenghua 23) sent to Min as official student (guansheng), Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Hō (Cheng Peng) 程鹏; on 12/9/1489 (Hongzhi 2) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying Administrator (zhangshi), Ryō Nō (Liang Neng) 梁能; on 21/8/1491 (Hongzhi 4) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Toku (Liang De) 梁德; on 16/8/1495 (Hongzhi 8) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Kyū (Zheng Jiu) 鄭玖; on 13/7/1497 (Hongzhi 10) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Ren (Cheng Lian) 程璉

5th Generation

Cai Qian 蔡遷 (?)28
Title: Administrator (zhangshi)
Remarks: On 13/8/1508 (Zhengde 3) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Nō (Liang Neng) 梁能; on 19/8/1510 (Zhengde 5) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Nō (Liang Neng) 梁能; on 13/8/1512 (Zhengde 7) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission together with the Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Kin Ryō (Jin Liang) 金良 et al.; on 13/8/1514 (Zhengde 9) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission together with the acting Consul and Administrator (shu daifu shi zhangshi 暑大夫事長史), Shin Gi (Chen Yi) 陳義; on 13/9/1516 (Zhengde 11) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Shin Gi (Chen Yi) 陳義; on 15/9/1517 (Zhengde 12) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission together with the Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Tei Roku (Cheng Lu) 程祿

Cai Jin 蔡進 (?)29
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 13/9/1516 (Zhengde 11) sent to Min as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Shin Gi (Chen Yi) 陳義

Cai Sui 蔡邃 (?)30
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 15/9/1517 (Zhengde 12) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Sai Sen (Cai Qian) 蔡遷; on 17/8/1523 (Jiajing 2) sent to Min and Beijing as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Jō (Zheng Sheng) 鄭繩

Cai Bo 蔡栢 (?)31
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Administrator (zhangshi)
Remarks: On 13/7/1497 (Hongzhi 10) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Ren (Cheng Lian) 程璉; on 3/8/1499 (Hongzhi 12) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Kyū (Zheng Jiu) 鄭玖; on 19/8/1507 (Zhengde 2) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Ren (Cheng Lian)程璉

Cai Quan 蔡權 (?)32
Title: Head of a Military Squad (huochang 火長)
Remarks: On 13/7/1497 (Hongzhi 10) sent to Min as Head of a Military Squad (huochang) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Ren (Cheng Lian) 程璉; on 3/8/1499 (Hongzhi 12) sent to Min as Head of a Military Squad (huochang of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Kyū (Zheng Jiu) 鄭玖

Cai Mo 蔡模 (1474–1513)33
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 3/8/1499 (Hongzhi 12) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Kyū (Zheng Jiu) 鄭玖; on 9/8/1501 (Hongzhi 14) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Ren (Cheng Lian) 程璉; on 12/7/1504 (Hongzhi 17) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Ren (Cheng Lian) 程璉

6th Generation

Cai Han 蔡瀚 (1502–1566)34
Title: Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu 正議大夫), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Administrator (zhangshi)
Remarks: On 15/8/1525 (Jiajing 4) sent to Min and Beijing as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Kin Ryō (Jin Liang) 金良; on 15/8/1529 (Jiajing 8) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission together with the Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Ryō Chin (Liang Chun) 梁椿 et al.; on 12/8/1531 (Jiajing 10) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Kin Ryō (Jin Liang) 金良; on 8/2/1535 (Jiajing 14) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a Xie’en mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Mō Jitsu 毛實; on 22/1/1541 (Jiajing 20) sent to Min and Beijing as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu 正議大夫) of a tribute and Qinghe mission together with the royally dispatched envoy ‘Ndarū35 殷達鲁

Cai Cheng 蔡澄 (?)36
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 15/8/1525 (Jiajing 4) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Kin Ryō (Jin Liang) 金良

Cai Hao 蔡浩 (?)37
Title: —
Remarks: On 17/8/1523 (Jiajing 2) is sent as official student (guansheng) to the Guozi jian 國子監 in Nanjing together with Sai Enbi (Cai Yanmei) 蔡延美, Tei Fu (Zheng Fu) 鄭富 and Ryō Shi (Liang Zi) 梁梓

Cai Yanmei 蔡延美 (?)38
Title: Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Administrator (zhangshi)
Remarks: On 17/8/1523 (Jiajing 2) sent as official student (guansheng) to the Guozi jian 國子監 in Nanjing; on 12/8/1531 (Jiajing 10) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu 正議大夫), Kin Ryō (Jin Liang) 金良; on 20/8/1537 (Jiajing 16) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute and Qinghe mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Shin Fu (Chen Fu) 陳賦 et al.; on 7/9/1541 (Jiajing 20) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission together with the Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) Tei Gen (Zheng Yuan) 鄭元 et al.; on 13/2/1549 (Jiajing 28) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Ken (Liang Xian) 梁顯 et al.

Cai Yanhui 蔡延會 (?)39
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Administrator (zhangshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: On 27/10/1535 (Jiajing 14) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Rin Sei (Lin Sheng) 林盛; on 20/8/1537 (Jiajing 16) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute and Qinghe mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Shin Fu (Chen Fu) 陳賦; on 22/1/1541 (Jiajing 20) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute and Qinghe mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, ‘Ndarū 殷達鲁; on 11/1/1545 (Jiajing 24) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Ryō Ken (Liang Xian) 梁顯; on 7/2/1547 (Jiajing 26) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Shin Fu (Chen Fu) 陳賦; on 16/8/1551 (Jiajing 30) sent to Min as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a tribute mission together with the Administrator (zhangshi), Ryō Gen (Liang Xuan) 梁炫 et al.; they met with a Taifun, were drifted to Taiping shan 太平山 (at present Hong Kong) and eventually got back home from there; on 9/2/1557 (Jiajing 36) sent to Min and Beijing as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a tribute and Xie’en mission together with the Administrator (zhangshi), Sai Chōki (Cai Chaoqi) 蔡朝器 et al.; on 25/9/1559 (Jiajing 38) sent to Min and Beijing as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a tribute and Xie’en mission together with the Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Ryō Shaku (Liang Zhuo) 梁灼 et al.

7th Generation

Cai Chaoqing 蔡朝慶 (1521–1560)40
Title: Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 17/9/1542 (Jiajing 21) sent to Min as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) together with Go Ra (Wu Luo) 吳羅 et al.; on 11/1/1545 (Jiajing 24) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) supervising the tribute of local products and sending back Korean drifters; on 13/2/1549 (Jiajing 28) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Ken (Liang Xuan) 梁顯, and the Administrator (zhangshi), Sai Enbi (Cai Yanmei) 蔡延美

Cai Chaoqi 蔡朝器 (1525–1587)41
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: On 7/3/1547 (Jiajing 26) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Shin Fu (Chen Fu) 陳賦 and the Administrator (zhangshi), Sai Enkai (Cai Yanhui) 蔡延會; they returned home the 10th day of the 8th month the same year; on 16/8/1551 (Jiajing 30) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai Enkai (Cai Yanhui) 蔡延會; but they met with a Taifun, were drifted to Taiping shan and eventually got back home from there; on 10/2/1553 (Jiajing 32) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Ryō Gen (Liang Xuan) 梁炫; on 9/2/1557 (Jiajing 36) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai Enkai (Cai Yanhui) 蔡延會; on 13/9/1561 (Jiajing 40) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Gen Toku 源德; on 15/2/1569 (Longqing 3) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute and Qinghe mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Mō Ren 毛廉; on 28/2/1575 (Wanli 3) sent to Min and Beijing as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a tribute mission together with the Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Kō Bunkan (Hong Wenhuan) 红文缓 et al.

Cai Chaojun 蔡朝俊 (1532–1581)42
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 29/10/1560 (Jiajing 39) sent to Min as Assistant Interpreter-clerk for the reception of the Heavenly envoys (yingjie tianshi fu tongshi 迎接天使副通事), accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Ryō Gen (Liang Xuan) 梁炫; on 22/2/1565 (Jiajing 44) sent to Min as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission sending local products together with the Envoy, Go Tōshū (Wu Tongxiu) 吳桐秀 et al.; on 27/2/1566 (Jiajing 45) sent to Min as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) together with the Envoy, Ba Kanei (Ma Jianing) 馬加寜 et al., to escort metropolitan officials back to the court; on 15/2/1569 (Longqing 3) sent to Min as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute and Qinghe mission sending local products together with the Envoy, Ba Shinfu43 (Ma Shenbu) 馬沈布 et al.

Cai Chaoyong 蔡朝用 (1526–1576)44
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Administrator (zhangshi)
Remarks: In 1550 (Jiajing 29), Cai Chaoyong (Sai Chōyō) is sent to Beijing as official student (guansheng) together with five other persons; on 9/2/1557 (Jiajing 36) sent to Min and Beijing as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission together with the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai Enkai (Cai Yanhui) 蔡延會, and the Administrator (zhangshi), Sai Chōki (Cai Chaoqi) 蔡朝器; on 29/10/1560 (Jiajing 39) sent to Min as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a Yingjie mission to meet the Heavenly envoys (tianshi 天使), accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Ryō Gen (Liang Xuan) 梁炫; on 15/2/1562 (Jiajing 41) sent to Min as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) together with the envoy, Ba Sanro (Ma Sanlu) 馬三路; on 27/2/1567 (Longqing 1) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission together with Tei Roku (Zheng Lu) 鄭祿 et al.

Cai Chaojie 蔡朝傑 (1539–1587)45
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 21/2/1571 (Longqing 5) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Ken (Zheng Xian) 鄭憲; on 28/2/1575 (Wanli 3) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai Chōki (Cai Chaoqi) 蔡朝器; they returned home the 21st day of the 12th month; he left again on 21/12/1575 (Wanli 3) to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) together with the Head of a Military Squad (huochang), Rin Seiei (Lin Shirong) 林世榮, to bring additional sulphur (liuhuang) as tribute

Cai Chaoxin 蔡朝信 (1551–1608)46
Title: Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Administrator (zhangshi)
Remarks: On 27/2/1599 (Wanli 27) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute, Xie’en and Qingfeng mission, accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Tei Dō (Zheng Dao) 鄭道; on 4/9/1602 (Wanli 30) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a Qinghe and Xie’en mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Mō Keiso 毛繼祖; on 18/9/1604 (Wanli 32) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a Qinghe and Xie’en mission

Cai Lian 蔡燫 (?)47
Title: Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 22/2/1565 (Jiajing 44) sent to the Guozi jian in Nanjing as an official student (guansheng); on 21/12/1575 (Wanli 3) sent to Min as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) for the reception of a Kanhe 勘合 certificate and the official investiture document for a status as king, accompanying the Administrator (zhangshi), Ryō San (Liang Shan) 梁燦

Cai Huan 蔡焕 (?)48
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 20/2/1574 (Wanli 2) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a Qinghe mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Ba Chūsō 馬忠叟

8th Generation

Cai Huan 蔡煊 (1566–1587)49
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 24/2/1582 (Wanli 10) sent to Min as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) and Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Tei Rei (Zheng Li) 鄭禮, to bring additional sulphur (liuhuang) and other items as tribute; on 5/3/1587 (Wanli 15) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute and Xie’en mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zheng yi dafu), Tei Rei (Zheng Li) 鄭禮

Cai Yan 蔡延 (1575–1644)50
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: On 11/9/1601 (Wanli 29) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and on-board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Kō (Zheng Hou) 鄭逅; on 11/2/1613 (Wanli 41) sent to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Kin Jūreki (Jin Shili) 金仕歷; on 9/2/1626 (Tianqi 6) sent to Min and Beijing as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a tribute mission together with the Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Tei Hanken (Zheng Fanxian) 鄭藩献 et al.; on 21/10/1631 (Chongzhen 4) sent to Min as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a Qingfeng mission together with the Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Gen Shikan 阮士乾 (Ruan Shiqian)

9th Generation

Cai Jian 蔡堅 (1587–1647)51
Title: Administrator (zhangshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Grand Master with the Purple-golden Ribbon (zijin dafu 紫金大夫)
Remarks: On 2/9/1610 (Wanli 38) sent to Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a tribute mission together with the envoy, Ba Seiki (Ma Chengji) 馬成驥; in 1614 (Wanli 42) sent Min and Beijing as Administrator (zhangshi) of a mission requesting repeated tribute paying, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Go Kakurei 吳鶴齡; on 4/10/1617 (Wanli 45) sent to Min and Beijing as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) together with the royally dispatched envoy, Mō Keiso 毛繼祖; in 1621 (Tianqi 1) sent to Min and Beijing as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a tribute and Qingfeng mission together with the royally dispatched envoy, Mō Hōgi 毛鳳儀; on 15/10/1633 (Chongzhen 6) sent to Min and Beijing as Grand Master with the Purple-golden Ribbon (zijin dafu) of a Xie’en mission together with the royally dispatched envoy, Go Kakurei 吳鶴齡; on 20/10/1638 (Chongzhen 11) sent to Min and Beijing as Grand Master with the Purple-golden Ribbon (zijin dafu) of a tribute mission together with the envoy, Mō Keizen (Mao Jishan) 毛繼善

Cai Guocai 蔡國材 (1612–1643)52
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 11/9/1634 (Chongzhen 7) sent to Min as an on-board Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying Sai Kin (Cai Jin) 蔡錦53; on 7/3/1642 (Chongzhen 15) sent to Min and Beijing as a Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) on a tribute mission, accompanying Sai Kin (Cai Jin) 蔡錦

Cai Guoqi 蔡國器 (1632–1644)54
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: On 21/2/1653 (Shunzhi 10) sent to Min and Beijing as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute and Qinghe mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy (ōkyū 王舅), Ba Shūki 馬宗毅, and Sha Hitsushin (Xie Bizhen) 謝必振; on 11/5/1670 (Kangxi 9) sent as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a tribute mission together with the the censor (ermu guan), Mr. Go 吳; on 24/10/1676 (Kangxi 15) sent as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a Jiegong mission inquiring about the tribute situation [due to the events around Geng Jingzhong 耿精忠];55 on 5/6/1682 (Kangxi 21) dispatched as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu); in the 11th month sent to Min and Beijing together with the Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Sai Taku (Cai Duo) 蔡鐸, and the censor (ermu guan), Mō Bunshō (Mao Wenxiang) 毛文祥 et al. 55

10th Generation

Cai Bin 蔡彬 (1642–1681)56
Title: Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi); Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: In 1663 (Kangxi 2) sent to Min in order to study (dushu 讀書), accompanying the Grand Master with the Purple-golden Ribbon (zijin dafu) of a Xie’en mision, Kin Seishun (Jin Zhengchun) 金正春; on 9/3/1666 (Kangxi 5) sent to Min as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a Jiegong mission together with the envoy, Sai Jun (Cai Chun) 蔡純 et al.

Cai Yingrui 蔡應瑞 (1651–1701)57
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: Between 24/2/1678 (Kangxi 17) and 26/1/1679) dispatched to Min as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ō Meisa (Wang Mingzuo) 王明佐;58 on 12/3/1688 (Kangxi 27) sent to Beijing and Min as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Mō Kiryū (Mao Qilong) 毛起龍, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai Taku (Cai Duo) 蔡鐸;59 on 2/5/1694 (Kangxi 33) dispatched as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Ō Keitoku (Weng) 翁敬徳60

11th Generation

Cai Bing 蔡炳 (1657–1694)61
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 1/10/1684 (Kangxi 23) dispatched as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission to Min, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Go Seishun (Wu Shijun) 吳世俊, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Eian (Zheng Yong’an) 鄭永安; they set sails for Min the 22nd day of the 1st month the following year (1685); on 13/2/1690 (Kangxi 29) dispatched to Min as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), On Inketsu (Wen Yunjie) 温允傑, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Kin Gentatsu (Jin Yuanda) 金元達

Cai Zhuo 蔡灼 (1662–1713)62
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: On 12/3/1688 (Kangxi 27) dispatched as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Mō Kiryū (Mao Qilong) 毛起龍, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai Taku (Cai Duo) 蔡鐸; 1695 (Kangxi 34) dispatched as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a mission receiving an official letter and tribute envoys, accompanying the envoy, On Inketsu (Wen Yunjie) 温允傑;63 in 1702 (Kangxi 41) dispatched to Min and Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Mō Kiryū (Mao Qilong) 毛起龍, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai Ōshō (Cai Yingxiang) 蔡應祥;64 between 4/9/1709 (Kangxi 48) and 22/11/1709 sent to Min as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), with the Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Sai Bunkan (Cai Wenhan) 蔡文漢;65 on 7/2/1712 (Kangxi 51) dispatched to Min and Beijing as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Mō Kyūkei (Mao Jiujing) 毛九經66

Cai Wenpu 蔡文浦 (1671–1745)67
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 30/1/1698 (Kangxi 38) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), together with Mō Bunketsu (Mao Wenjie) 毛文傑 and the Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Tei Shirin (Zheng Shilun) 鄭仕倫 [鄭士綸]68

Cai Wen 蔡温 (1682–1761)69
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 3/2/1708 (Kangxi 47) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu), accompanying the Grand Master for Proper Con sul tation (zhengyi dafu), Mō Buntetsu (Mao Wenzhe) 毛文哲;70 on 19/2/1716 (Kangxi 55) sent to Min and Beijing as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a Qingfeng mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Mr. Shō 尚71

Cai Wenhe 蔡文河 (1683–1750)72
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu); Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: In 1710 (Kangxi 49) appointed as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi); on 3/2/1713 [left Naha on 25/11/1713] (Kangxi 52) dispatched as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) together with Ryō Shōjitsu (Liang Chengshi ) 梁承實; on 25/11/1718 (Kangxi 57) dispatched to Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a Xie’en mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Shō Ryūyoku 向龍翼, and the Grand Master with the Purple-golden Ribbon (zijin dafu), Tei Junsoku (Cheng Shunze) 程順則;73 on 24/1/1730 (Yongzheng 8) sent to Min as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), together with the royally dispatched envoy, ShōKokusai 向克濟74

12th Generation

Cai Xun 蔡壎 (1681–1714)75
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 24/11/1704 (Kangxi 43) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censors (ermu guan), On Kaiei (Wen Kairong) 温開榮 and Sai Chōkō (Cai Zhaogong) 蔡肇功; between 17/11/1710 (Kangxi 49) sent to Min as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Mō Meiji (Meng Mingshi) 孟命時, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Gen Ishin (Ruan Weixin) 阮維新 et al.; on 3/2/1714 (Kangxi 53) dispatched as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission to Beijing; in the 8th month, he fell sick and deceased in the 9th month

Cai Yong 蔡墉 (1687–1748)76
Title: General Manager (zongguan), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: On 6/2/1711 (Kangxi 50) dispatched as the general manager (zongguan) of a Jiegong mission, accompaning the Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Gi Ran (Wei Luan) 魏鸞 et al. to Min; in 1719 (Kangxi 58) sent to Min and Beijing as Grand Master with the Purple-golden Ribbon (zijin dafu 紫金大夫) and Assistant Interpreter-clerk (zan tongshi 賛通事), accompanying the Grand Master with the Purple-golden Ribbon (zijin dafu 紫金大夫), Tei Junsoku (Cheng Shunze) 程順則 et al. on an investiture ship (cefang baochuan); on 8/1/1724 (Yongzheng 2) dispatched as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) on the 2nd ship of the tribute mission, on 15/11/1724 sent to Min, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Mō Kengen (Mao Jianyuan) 毛健元, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai En (Cai Yuan) 蔡淵 et al.; in 1732 (Yongzheng 10) ordered to bring back drifted merchant ships; on 29/11 the same year he was sent to Min, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), On Shimei (Wen Siming) 温思明, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Tei Gi (Zheng Yi) 鄭儀 et al.; on 21/2/1798 (Qianlong 3) dispatched as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), on 26/11 sent to Min and Beijing together with Shō Igō 向維豪77

Cai Qidong 蔡其棟 (1693–1741)78
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: On 21/11/1723 (Yongzheng 1)79 sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a Jiegong mission, accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Ō Kokuchū 翁國柱, and Sō Reki (Zeng Li ) 曾歴; between 24/1/1730 to 2/12/1730 (Yongzheng 8) sent to Min as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Shō Kokusai 向克濟, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai Bunka (Cai Wenhe) 蔡文河; on 24/2/1740 (Qianlong 5) sent to Min as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a Xie’en mission

Cai Pei 蔡培 (1690–1762)80
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 8/1/1724 (Yongzheng 2) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Mō Kengen (Mao Jianyuan) 毛健元, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai En (Cai Yuan) 蔡淵, on 15/11 reached Min;81 on 24/1/1730 (Yongzheng 8) dispatched as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission accompanying the royally dispatched envoy, Shō Kokusai 向克濟, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai Bunka (Cai Wenhe) 蔡文河, on 2/12 is sent to Min82

Cai Guangzu 蔡光祖 (1711–1766)83
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 17/2/1748 (Qianlong 13)84 it was proclaimed that on 20/12/1748 he would be sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Shō Eisei 向永成 and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zheng yi dafu), Tei Heitetsu (Zheng Binzhe) 鄭秉哲 (1745–1876); on 1/2/1756 (Qianlong 21) dispatched as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Shō Zensai (Xiang Quancai) 向全才, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Gen Chōgun (Ruan Zhaoqun) 阮超羣; on 1/2/1766 (Qianlong 31) ordered to go to Beijing as interpreter, but died already in Min

13th Generation85

Cai Xuan 蔡塇 (1688–1722)86
Title: Assistant Interpreter (fu tongshi 副通事), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: In 1712 (Kangxi 51) sent to Min to accompany a tribute mission with the the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Cai Chuo 蔡灼 (1662–1713)87; on 26/1/1718 (Kangxi 57) dispatched to Min as Assistant Interpreter (fu tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Shō Kanhei (Xiang Qianbing) 向乾秉, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Yō Renkei (Yang Liangui) 楊聯桂; their ships met with a storm and only reached Min the 5th day of the 3rd month; on 22/5/1718, he returned with the heavenly envoys of an investiture mission (cefeng tianshi); on 15/2/1722 (Kangxi 61) sent to Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Mō Kōken (Mao Hongjian) 毛弘健, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Shin Kishō (Chen Qixiang) 陳其湘, and met with calamities

Cai Gongxi 蔡功熈 (1711–1764)88
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: On 5/2/1749 (Qianlong 14) dispatched as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a Jiegong mission; on 5/1/1750 sent to Min, accompanying Mō Gen’yoku (Mao Yuanyi) 毛元翼 and the envoy, Shō Kokurui (Xiang Kelei) 向克類; on 3/2/1754 (Qianlong 19) sent to Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute and Qingfeng mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Mō Gen’yoku (Mao Yuanyi) 毛元翼, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai Kōbo (Cai Hongmo) 蔡宏謨 (1700–1766); in 1757 (Qianlong 22) sent to China together with Mō Bunryū (Mao Wenlong) 毛文龍

Cai Renbang 蔡任邦 (1747–1794)89
Title: General Manager (zongguan)
Remarks: On 13/5/1776 (Qianlong 41) he was ordered to accompany ship no. 2 to go to Min to study; on 12/12/1784 (Qianlong 49) sent to Min as General Manager (zongguan) of ship no. 2, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Shō Ken (Xiang Xian) 向献, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Mō Keiyū (Mao Jingyu) 毛景裕

Cai Renzhong 蔡任重 (1732–1796)90
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 1/2/1785 (Qianlong 50) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission to Min that left Naha on 3/5/1786, accompanying Ma Kōmo (Ma Xiangmao) 麻向茂 and the Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Sai Toku’un (Cai Deyun) 蔡德蕴

Cai Rengui 蔡任貴 (1755–1802)91
Title: General Manager (zongguan 總管)
Remarks: On 1/2/1790 (Qianlong 55) sent to Min as General Manager (zongguan 總管) of a tribute mission on ship no. 1, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Ba Keibo (Ma Jimo) 馬繼謨, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Shin Tenryū (Chen Tianlong) 陳天龍; in 1798 (Jiaqing 3), asked to accompany ship no. 2 to Min; on 1/2/1802 (Jiaqing 7) dispatched as general manager (zongguan 總管)92 on ship no. 1, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Shō Sen (Xiang Quan) 向銓, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Kan (Liang Huan) 梁焕

14th Generation

Cai Yi 蔡懿 (1716–1775)93
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: On 1/2/1763 (Qianlong 28) sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a Jiegong mission, accompanying the Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Kō Heiki (Hong Bingyi) 红秉毅, and Go Eiryū (Wu Yonglong) 吳永隆; they left 5/1/1764; on 1/2/1770 (Qianlong 35) dispatched as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Mō Jikan (Mao Zihuan) 毛自焕, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Gi Kenran (Wei Xianlan) 魏獻蘭; in 1775 (Qianlong 39), sent to Min as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a tribute mission together with the censor (ermu guan), Shō Sūyū 向崇猷, but died 1775 in the Rouyuan yi of Min after having been infected by a disease

Cai Deyun 蔡德蕴 (1729–1791)94
Title: Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 1/2/1774 (Qianlong 39) ordered as Chief [Interpreter-clerk?]95 to join a tribute mission to Min on ship no. 2; (they left on 9/3/1774), accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Shō Sūyū 向崇猷, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai I (Cai Yi) 蔡懿; on 1/2/1785 (Qianlong 50) sent to Min as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) of a tribute; mission (they leave 3/5/1786), accompanying Ma Kōmo (Ma Xiangmao) 麻向茂

Cai Demao 蔡德懋 (1744–1817)96
Title: —
Remarks: In 9/1766 (Qianlong 31) and again in 1774 (Qianlong 39) sent to Min to study rituals and law

Cai Zhaoye 蔡肇業 (1756–1827)97
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu)
Remarks: On 1/2/1800 (Jiaqing 5) sent to Min as on board Interpreter-clerk (zai chuan tongshi), accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Shō Hitsuken (Xiang Bixian) 向必顯, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zheng yi dafu), Gen Yoku (Ruan Yi) 阮翼 et al.;98 on 1/2/1806 (Jiaqing 11) sent to Beijing as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Yō Kokuton (Yang Kedun) 楊克敦, and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Hōhitsu (Liang Bangbi) 梁邦弼 et al.;99 (they left 16/9 from Min); on 1/2/1810 (Jiaqing 15) sent to Min and Beijing as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) of a tribute mission (they left on 18/11/1810), together with the censor (ermu guan), Shō Kokuchū (Xiang Guozhu) 向國柱 on ship no. 1100

Cai Zhaoji 蔡肇基 (1759–1822)101
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 1/2/1801 (Jiaqing 6)102 sent to Min as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), accompanying Shō Tekigi (Xiang Diyi) 向迪義 and the [Chief] Interpreter-clerk (datongshi), Rin Kakai (Lin Jiahuai) 林家槐 et al.; they left on the 7th day of the 10th month;103 on 15/10/1807 (Jiaqing 12) dispatched to escort back the Great interpreter (da tongshi) of the Heavenly envoys (tianshi); on 1/2/1810 (Jiaqing 15) sent to Min as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi), accompanying the the censor (ermu guan), Shō Kokuchū (Xiang Guozhu) 向國柱 and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Sai Chōgyō (Cai Zhaoye) 蔡肇業104; the boat met with a storm and was drifted to Guangdong, Huilaixian 惠來縣, they reached Fujian on the 5th day of the 12th month; on 1/2/1817 (Jiaqing 25) sent as and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) together with the censor (ermu guan), Shō Hōsei 向邦正 (Shang Bangzheng)105

15th Generation

Cai Bangzuo 蔡邦佐 (1784–1854)106
Title: General Manager (zongguan)
Remarks: On 1/2/1846 (Daoguang 26) sent as General Manager (zongguan) accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Shō Genbo 向元模 (Xiang Yuanmo), and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Ryō Hitsutatsu 梁必達 (Liang Bida)107

Cai Bangbi 蔡邦弼 (1781–1863)108
Title: Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 1/2/1851 (Daoguang 30) sent to Min as on-board Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a tribute mission, accompanying the royal envoy of a Qinghe mission, Ka Chōgun 夏超群 (Xia Chaoqun), and the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Mō Yūzō毛有增 (Mao Youzeng)109

16th Generation

Cai Xiu 蔡修 (1777–1832)110
Title: Residence Attaché (cunliu), Interpreter-clerk (tongshi)
Remarks: On 28/3/1817 (Jiaqing 22) sent to China as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi) of a Jiegong mission, accompanying Shō Genrin (Xiang Yuanlin) 向元麟 and the Chief Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Gi Sūjin (Wei Chongren) 魏崇仁

Cai Zuo 蔡佐 (1789–1822)111
Title: —
Remarks: On 2/5/1817 (Jiaqing 22) ordered to go to Min to study rituals and to accompany the Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Sai Shū (Cai Xiu) 蔡修, on a Jiegong mission; they leave Naha the 6th day of the 9th month and reach Wuhumen 五虎門 the 14th day

Cai Chengshu 蔡呈書 (1802– ?)112
Title: Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)
Remarks: On 1/2/1864 (Tongzhi 3) sent to China as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) on a large Chinese ship (Tangchuan 唐船), accompanying the censor (ermu guan), Tō Kokukō東國興 (Dong Guoxing), and the the Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu), Mō Hatsuei毛發榮 (Mao Farong); on 1/11/1869 (Tongzhi 8) sent to China as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi)113

17th Generation

Cai Ji 蔡吉 (1796–1830)114
Title: —
Remarks: On 20/5/1827 (Daoguang 7) ordered to accompany the Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), Gi Datsuyō (Wei Duoyong) 魏奪庸, on a Jiegong mission; they left Naha the 30th day of the 7th month and reach Wuhumen 五虎門 the 14th day

Cai Ji 蔡璣 (1815– ?)115
Title: —
Remarks: In 5/1843 (Daoguang 23) ordered to study rituals and to accompany the Chief Interpreter-clerk (da tongshi) of a Jiegong mission, Sai Seigen (Cai Shiyan) 蔡世彦; they left Naha the 9th day of the 9th month and reached Fuzhou the 13th day

Bibliography

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————, MingQing ZhongLiu hanghai maoyi yanjiu 明清中琉航海貿易研究. Beijing: Haiyang chubanshe, 2004.

Zheng Liangsheng 鄭樑生, “Liuqiu zai Qingdai cefeng tizhi zhong de dingwei shitan: yi Shunzhi Kangxi Yongzhen sanchao wei li” 琉球在清代冊封體制中的定位試探 — 以順治康熙雍正三朝為例, in LiuZhong lishi guanxi lunwenji, 219-241.


1 In Crossroads 1/2 (2010), 99–150. This research contributes to the MCRI (Major Collaborative Research Initiative) project sponsored by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. 

Officially Ryūkyū was ranked after Korea and before Burma (Xianluo 暹羅) and Annam. Cf. for example Zheng Liangsheng 鄭樑生 (1993), 229.

2 Xie Bizhen 謝必震 (2004).

3 Ta-tuan Ch’en (1968), 137; Xie Bizhen (2004), 74.

4 1663, Zhang Xueli 張學禮 (fl. 1664); 1683, Wang Ji 汪楫 (1636–1699); 1719, Hai Bao 海寶 and Xu Baoguang 徐葆光 (1671–1723/1740); 1756, Quan Kui 全魁 (jinshi 1751, d. 1791) and Zhou Huang 周煌 (jinshi 1737; d. 1785); 1800, Li Dingyuan 李鼎元 (jinshi 1778); 1808, Zhao Wenkai 趙文楷 (1760–1808); 1838 Lin Hongnian 林鴻年 (c. 1804–1885) and Gao Renjian 高人鑑 (jnshi 1832), and 1866 the last one by Zhao Xin 趙新 (jinshi 1852). Each time an investiture embassy arrived from China, the Ryūkyūan government set up a commission near the “Residence for the Celestial Envoy” (Tianshi guan 天使館) in the capital Naha, the so-called “Office or Department of Valuation”, Hyōka-gata 評價方 (Ch. pingjia si 評價司). This administrative office had to manage the purchase of the import cargoes and to decide on the prices of each commodity imported. The functions of the Hyōka-gata are briefly described in Xie Bizhen (2004), 49–53. Cf. also Ta-tuan Ch’en (1968), 144.

5 See Takeshi Hamashita, Linda Grove and Mark Selden (2008), 82.

6 Lidai bao’an, vol. I/11, 366–369; Kyūyō, entry no. 545.

7 Ibid.

8 Da Ming huidian 105.6b; cf. also Xie Bizhen (1996), 33 (with reference to Wubei zhi 214, haifang 海防 6). For the role of these thirty-six families cf. also Müller (1993), 44-47. A Japanese author, Arano Yasunori, claims, however, that “(c)ontrary to the common assumption that the Ming Emperor sent them to the Ryūkyū Kingdom, (…) they spontaneously came from abroad, settled and formed their community”. Arano Yasunori (2001), 125. The Chinese sources speak of “bestow upon” (ci 賜).

9 Ming shi 323.8362.

10 Cf. Wu Aihua (1989), 371; also Xie Bizhen (1991).

11 See footnote 22 of the above mentioned article published in the first issue of this journal, Crossroads 1/2 (2010), 110.

12 According to the Kumemura kei kafu, 246-292. Cai Chong emigrated to the Ryūkyūs in 1392 (hongwu 25). The Cai family was one of the thirty-six families sent to the Ryūkyūs by the Ming emperor Taizu in 1392. Cf. Kumemura kei kafu, 246; see also Da Ming huidian (1587), 105.6b (1587). For Cai Chong, cf. Kumemura kei kafu, 246. The data of the 九米村係家譜 have been supplemented by information from the electronic versions of the Rekidai hōan 歷代寶案 and the Chūzan seifu 中山世譜. Many more interpreters, administrative clerks or diplomats with the family name Cai can be found in these sources, in particular for the later time periods, but it is not clear if they were all direct descendants of Cai Chong.

13 Kumemura kei kafu, 247.

14 Sakamaki Shunzō (1964), 15, transcribes this last name as “Shin”, but it could possibly also be read as “Chin”.

15 Kumemura kei kafu, 248.

16 Kumemura kei kafu, 248.

17 Kumemura kei kafu, 248.

18 This reading is unclear.

19 Kumemura kei kafu, 249.

20 Kumemura kei kafu, 249.

21 Again this reading is unclear.

22 Kumemura kei kafu, 249.

23 Kumemura kei kafu, 250.

24 Kumemura kei kafu, 250.

25 Reading according to Sakamaki Shunzo (1964), 22. In the original text the Chinese version of the character is provided, not the modern Japanese writing.

26 Kumemura kei kafu, 251.

27 Kumemura kei kafu, 251.

28 Kumemura kei kafu, 251.

29 Kumemura kei kafu, 251-252.

30 Kumemura kei kafu, 252.

31 Kumemura kei kafu, 252.

32 Kumemura kei kafu, 252.

33 Kumemura kei kafu, 252.

34 Kumemura kei kafu, 253.

35 According to Sakamaki Shunzō (1964), 24.

36 Kumemura kei kafu, 253-254.

37 Kumemura kei kafu, 254.

38 Kumemura kei kafu, 254.

39 Kumemura kei kafu, 254.

40 Kumemura kei kafu, 255.

41 Kumemura kei kafu, 255.

42 Kumemura kei kafu, 256.

43 This could possibly also read as “Ba Chinfu”.

44 A Cai Chaoyong from the 7th generation is mentioned in Ryūkyū Saishi kafu (Liuqiu Caishi jiapu) 琉球蔡氏家譜, under the entry Jiajing 29. See Kumemura kei kafu, 297. He is also mentioned in the Chūzan seifu, j. 7, as official government student (guansheng 官生) under the entry of King Shō Sei 尚清 (1527–1555). He is the father of Cai Yan 蔡延 (1575–1644).

45 Kumemura kei kafu, 256.

46 Kumemura kei kafu, 257.

47 Kumemura kei kafu, 257.

48 Kumemura kei kafu, 257.

49 Kumemura kei kafu, 257.

50 Kumemura kei kafu, 297. He is also mentioned in Chūzan seifu, j. 7, under the entry of King Shō Hō 尚豊 (1621–1640) as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) in Tianqi 6. See also entries in Rekidai hōan, I: 19–01 (/rekiho1txt/19.txt), and I: 26–18 (/rekiho1txt/26.txt). In the Kumemura kei kafu, 297, he is mentioned as the son of the 7th generation Cai Chaoyong 蔡朝用 (1526–1576).

51 Kumemura kei kafu, 258.

52 Kumemura kei kafu, 298.

53 He was obviously involved in the embezzlement of official silver (ōgin 王銀). The mission had a sum of 1,000 kanme, that is 100,000 liang, of to-Tō gin 渡唐銀 (lit. silver for sailing to China) on board; subsequently they provided thirty-one Chinese merchants with silver in order to purchase Hu silk for them. See Kikō Nishizato (1997), 68; also Schottenhammer (2010), esp. 110.

54 Kumemura kei kafu, 298.

55 Kumemura kei kafu, 298. Accordingly, he had first been dispatched already on the 19th day of the 6th month as envoy to meet Chen Yingchang 陳應昌, who had been sent to Chūzan by the “South-pacifying King”, Geng Jingzhong 耿精忠, to request sulphur. According to the electronic version of the Rekidai hōan, I: 27–07 (/rekiho1txt/27.txt), the responsible censor was then Fu Moshō 冨茂昌. The dispatch of 1676 is not mentioned there.

56 Kumemura kei kafu, 261.

57 Kumemura kei kafu, 301. He is also mentioned in the Rekidai hōan, I: 27 (/rekiho1txt/27.txt): in 27–15 as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) and in I: 27–18 as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu). His son, Cai Wenxiang 蔡文湘 (1679–1699), was sent to Min to study in 1695 (Kangxi 34). See Kumemura kei kafu, 309. His son, Cai Wenpu 蔡文浦 (1671–1745), was sent to Min to study in 1695 (Kangxi 34). See Kumemura kei kafu, 303.

58 This information is neither included in the recent copy of the Kumemura kei kafu nor in the electronic versions of the Rekidai hōan or Chūzan seifu.

59 The famous doctor Wei Shizhe 魏士哲 was also on this mission acting as interpreter.

60 Kumemura kei kafu, 302, only speaks of Mr. Weng 翁氏.

61 Kumemura kei kafu, 263.

62 Kumemura kei kafu, 277. In addition, he is mentioned in the Chūzan seifu, j. 8, under King Shō Tei 尚貞 (1669–1709) and in j. 9 under King Shō Eki 尚益 (1710–1712) as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu). See also Kumemura kei kafu, 278.

63 Entry 15/5/1696 (Kangxi 35) in Rekidai hōan, I: 11 (/rekiho1txt/11.txt).

64 Entry 8/10/1702 (Kangxi 41) in Rekidai hōan, II: 2 (/rekiho2txt/r2.txt).

65 Entry 8/6/1710 (Kangxi 49) in Rekidai hōan, II: 5 (/rekiho2txt/r5.txt).

66 Entry 6/11/1712 (Kangxi 51) in Rekidai hōan, II: 6 (/rekiho2txt/r6.txt).

67 Kumemura kei kafu, 303. He is mentioned in Rekidai hōan, II: 01-14 (/rekiho2txt/r2.txt), as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi). Cai Wenhan 蔡文漢 is mentioned in Rekidai hōan, II: 02–9 and 02–11 (/rekiho2txt/r2.txt) as Interpreter-clerk (tongshi).

68 Entry 9/10/1699 (Kangxi 38) in Rekidai hōan, II: 01-13 (/rekiho2txt/01.txt).

69 Kumemura kei kafu, 365. He is also mentioned in Rekidai hōan II: 04-19 (/rekiho2txt/04.txt), as Residence Attaché (cunliu), and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi).

70 Kumemura kei kafu, 366. See also the entries in Rekidai hōan, II: 04-17 II: 04-20 (/rekiho2txt/04.txt).

71 Kumemura kei kafu, 367.

72 Kumemura kei kafu, 325. He is also mentioned in the Chūzan seifu, j. 9, as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) under King Shō Kei 尚敬 (1713–1751). See also the entries in Rekidai hōan, II: 10-10 (/rekiho2txt/10.txt), and II: 11-03 (/rekiho2txt/11.txt) (as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi).

73 Entry 12/6/1720 (Kangxi 59) in Rekidai hōan, II: 11-03 (/rekiho2txt/11.txt).

74 Entry [month is unclear] (Yongzheng 9) in Rekidai hōan, II: 18-01 (/rekiho2txt/18.txt).

75 Kumemura kei kafu, 264.

76 Kumemura kei kafu, 340. He is also is mentioned in the Chūzan seifu, j. 9, as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi) and Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu) under King Shō Kei. See also Kumemura kei kafu, 925.

77 This last mission is mentioned in entry 8/11/1738 (Qianlong 3) in Rekidai hōan, II: 22-23 (/rekiho2txt/r2.txt).

78 Kumemura kei kafu, 309. He is also mentioned in Rekidai hōan, II: 13-21 (/rekiho2txt/13.txt), as as Residence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), in Kumemura kei kafu, 311, as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu).

79 He was first sent to Min as a student. See Kumemura kei kafu, 310.

80 Kumemura kei kafu, 279.

81 See entry 28/05/1726 (Yongzheng 4) in Rekidai hōan, II: 15-03 (/rekiho2txt/15.txt).

82 See entry 21/11/1730 (Yongzheng 8) in Rekidai hōan, II: 17-19 (/rekiho2txt/17.txt), as Chief Interpreter-clerk (du tongshi). Here also 蔡文河 and 蔡其棟 are mentioned.

83 Kumemura kei kafu, 328. He is also mentioned in Rekidai hōan, 17-L4 (www. tulips.tsukuba.ac.jp/limedio/dlam/B1241187/1/vol04/sts/sen/sen1.txt), as Re si dence Attaché (cunliu) and Interpreter-clerk (tongshi), (13/02/1749). His son, Cai Renzhong 蔡任重 (1733–1796), in 1756 (Qianlong 21) was sent to Min to study on board the Xie’en mission under the Deputy Envoy Tei Heitetsu (Zheng Binzhe) 鄭秉哲 (1745–1876).

84 Kumemura kei kafu, 329, mentiones that he was first sent to Min as a student.

85 Kumemura kei kafu, 342: In 1774 (Qianlong 39) Cai Guoduo 蔡國鐸 (1736–1807) was sent to Min as a student.

86 Kumemura kei kafu, 265.

87 See entry above.

88 Kumemura kei kafu, 313. He is also mentioned in the Chūzan seifu, j. 10, under King Shō Boku 尚穆 (1752–1795) as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu). His son, Cai Demao 蔡德懋 (1744–1817), is sent twice (in 1766 and 1774) to Min to study. See Kumemura kei kafu, 317.

89 Kumemura kei kafu, 332.

90 Kumemura kei kafu, 330. There it is mentioned that it was requested to change his name to “de” 德, as “重” was a taboo character.

91 Kumemura kei kafu, 333. The mission is also mentioned in the Chūzan seifu, j. 10, under King Shō Boku; see also Kumemura kei kafu, 63.htm (1/2/1790).

92 Kumemura kei kafu, 334, does not mention a destination.

93 Kumemura kei kafu, 266.

94 Kumemura kei kafu, 315.

95 The characters immediately following the term “du” are missing in the text. See Kumemura kei kafu, 316.

96 Kumemura kei kafu, 317.

97 Kumemura kei kafu, 343.

98 Entry 10-178 (福建巡撫汪志伊爲琉球接貢船并附搭中國難民抵閩事題本) in www. tulips.tsukuba.ac.jp/limedio/dlam/B1241187/1/vol04/stz/zok3.txt.

99 Entry 10-182 (福建巡撫張師誠爲琉球國循例進貢兼請襲封事題本) in www.tulips. tsukuba.ac.jp/limedio/dlam/B1241187/1/vol04/stz/zok3.txt.

100 Entry 11-186 (閩浙總督汪志伊爲琉球國貢船漂收廣東護送到閩事題本) in www. tulips.tsukuba.ac.jp/limedio/dlam/B1241187/1/vol04/stz/zok3.txt.

101 Kumemura kei kafu, 354. His son, Cai Wenyu 蔡文郁 (1784–1850), was sent to Min to study in 1810 (Jiaqing 15). See Kumemura kei kafu, 358.

102 He was first sent to Min as a student in 1785. See Kumemura kei kafu, 354.

103 Entry 10-178 (福建巡撫汪志伊爲琉球接貢船并附搭中國難民抵閩事題本) in www. tulips.tsukuba.ac.jp/limedio/dlam/B1241187/1/vol04/stz/zok3.txt.

104 Kumemura kei kafu, 355; this is also mentioned in entry 11-186 (閩浙總督汪志伊爲琉球國貢船漂收廣東護送到閩事題本) in www.tulips.tsukuba.ac.jp/ limedio/dlam/B1241187/1/vol04/stz/zok3.txt.

105 Kumemura kei kafu, 355-356.

106 Kumemura kei kafu, 352.

107 Kumemura kei kafu, 353.

108 Kumemura kei kafu, 351.

109 Kumemura kei kafu, 352.

110 Kumemura kei kafu, 269.

111 Kumemura kei kafu, 271.

112 Kumemura kei kafu, 348. His son, Cai Pixian 蔡丕顯 (1836–?), was sent twice (1864 and 1869) to Min to study. See Kumemura kei kafu, 350.

113 Kumemura kei kafu, 350. According to entry 14-268 and 14-269 on 16/7/1870 (Tongzhi 9) as Grand Master for Proper Consultation (zhengyi dafu): 16/7/1870 (閩浙總督英桂爲琉球國接貢船回國事題本) in www.tulips.tsukuba.ac.jp/limedio/dlam/B1241187/1/vol04/stz/zok4.txt.

114 Kumemura kei kafu, 272.

115 Kumemura kei kafu, 273-274.